Source code for cherrypy.lib.httputil

"""HTTP library functions.

This module contains functions for building an HTTP application
framework: any one, not just one whose name starts with "Ch". ;) If you
reference any modules from some popular framework inside *this* module,
FuManChu will personally hang you up by your thumbs and submit you
to a public caning.

import functools
import email.utils
import re
from binascii import b2a_base64
from cgi import parse_header
    # Python 3
    from email.header import decode_header
except ImportError:
    from email.Header import decode_header

import six

from cherrypy._cpcompat import BaseHTTPRequestHandler, ntob, ntou
from cherrypy._cpcompat import text_or_bytes, iteritems
from cherrypy._cpcompat import reversed, sorted, unquote_qs

response_codes = BaseHTTPRequestHandler.responses.copy()

# From
response_codes[500] = ('Internal Server Error',
                       'The server encountered an unexpected condition '
                       'which prevented it from fulfilling the request.')
response_codes[503] = ('Service Unavailable',
                       'The server is currently unable to handle the '
                       'request due to a temporary overloading or '
                       'maintenance of the server.')

HTTPDate = functools.partial(email.utils.formatdate, usegmt=True)

[docs]def urljoin(*atoms): """Return the given path \*atoms, joined into a single URL. This will correctly join a SCRIPT_NAME and PATH_INFO into the original URL, even if either atom is blank. """ url = '/'.join([x for x in atoms if x]) while '//' in url: url = url.replace('//', '/') # Special-case the final url of "", and return "/" instead. return url or '/'
[docs]def urljoin_bytes(*atoms): """Return the given path `*atoms`, joined into a single URL. This will correctly join a SCRIPT_NAME and PATH_INFO into the original URL, even if either atom is blank. """ url = ntob('/').join([x for x in atoms if x]) while ntob('//') in url: url = url.replace(ntob('//'), ntob('/')) # Special-case the final url of "", and return "/" instead. return url or ntob('/')
[docs]def protocol_from_http(protocol_str): """Return a protocol tuple from the given 'HTTP/x.y' string.""" return int(protocol_str[5]), int(protocol_str[7])
[docs]def get_ranges(headervalue, content_length): """Return a list of (start, stop) indices from a Range header, or None. Each (start, stop) tuple will be composed of two ints, which are suitable for use in a slicing operation. That is, the header "Range: bytes=3-6", if applied against a Python string, is requesting resource[3:7]. This function will return the list [(3, 7)]. If this function returns an empty list, you should return HTTP 416. """ if not headervalue: return None result = [] bytesunit, byteranges = headervalue.split('=', 1) for brange in byteranges.split(','): start, stop = [x.strip() for x in brange.split('-', 1)] if start: if not stop: stop = content_length - 1 start, stop = int(start), int(stop) if start >= content_length: # From rfc 2616 sec 14.16: # "If the server receives a request (other than one # including an If-Range request-header field) with an # unsatisfiable Range request-header field (that is, # all of whose byte-range-spec values have a first-byte-pos # value greater than the current length of the selected # resource), it SHOULD return a response code of 416 # (Requested range not satisfiable)." continue if stop < start: # From rfc 2616 sec 14.16: # "If the server ignores a byte-range-spec because it # is syntactically invalid, the server SHOULD treat # the request as if the invalid Range header field # did not exist. (Normally, this means return a 200 # response containing the full entity)." return None result.append((start, stop + 1)) else: if not stop: # See rfc quote above. return None # Negative subscript (last N bytes) # # RFC 2616 Section 14.35.1: # If the entity is shorter than the specified suffix-length, # the entire entity-body is used. if int(stop) > content_length: result.append((0, content_length)) else: result.append((content_length - int(stop), content_length)) return result
[docs]class HeaderElement(object): """An element (with parameters) from an HTTP header's element list.""" def __init__(self, value, params=None): self.value = value if params is None: params = {} self.params = params def __cmp__(self, other): return cmp(self.value, other.value) def __lt__(self, other): return self.value < other.value def __str__(self): p = [';%s=%s' % (k, v) for k, v in iteritems(self.params)] return str('%s%s' % (self.value, ''.join(p))) def __bytes__(self): return ntob(self.__str__()) def __unicode__(self): return ntou(self.__str__()) @staticmethod
[docs] def parse(elementstr): """Transform 'token;key=val' to ('token', {'key': 'val'}).""" initial_value, params = parse_header(elementstr) return initial_value, params
[docs] def from_str(cls, elementstr): """Construct an instance from a string of the form 'token;key=val'.""" ival, params = cls.parse(elementstr) return cls(ival, params)
q_separator = re.compile(r'; *q *=')
[docs]class AcceptElement(HeaderElement): """An element (with parameters) from an Accept* header's element list. AcceptElement objects are comparable; the more-preferred object will be "less than" the less-preferred object. They are also therefore sortable; if you sort a list of AcceptElement objects, they will be listed in priority order; the most preferred value will be first. Yes, it should have been the other way around, but it's too late to fix now. """ @classmethod
[docs] def from_str(cls, elementstr): qvalue = None # The first "q" parameter (if any) separates the initial # media-range parameter(s) (if any) from the accept-params. atoms = q_separator.split(elementstr, 1) media_range = atoms.pop(0).strip() if atoms: # The qvalue for an Accept header can have extensions. The other # headers cannot, but it's easier to parse them as if they did. qvalue = HeaderElement.from_str(atoms[0].strip()) media_type, params = cls.parse(media_range) if qvalue is not None: params['q'] = qvalue return cls(media_type, params)
@property def qvalue(self): 'The qvalue, or priority, of this value.' val = self.params.get('q', '1') if isinstance(val, HeaderElement): val = val.value return float(val) def __cmp__(self, other): diff = cmp(self.qvalue, other.qvalue) if diff == 0: diff = cmp(str(self), str(other)) return diff def __lt__(self, other): if self.qvalue == other.qvalue: return str(self) < str(other) else: return self.qvalue < other.qvalue
RE_HEADER_SPLIT = re.compile(',(?=(?:[^"]*"[^"]*")*[^"]*$)')
[docs]def header_elements(fieldname, fieldvalue): """Return a sorted HeaderElement list from a comma-separated header string. """ if not fieldvalue: return [] result = [] for element in RE_HEADER_SPLIT.split(fieldvalue): if fieldname.startswith('Accept') or fieldname == 'TE': hv = AcceptElement.from_str(element) else: hv = HeaderElement.from_str(element) result.append(hv) return list(reversed(sorted(result)))
[docs]def decode_TEXT(value): r"""Decode :rfc:`2047` TEXT (e.g. "=?utf-8?q?f=C3=BCr?=" -> "f\xfcr").""" atoms = decode_header(value) decodedvalue = '' for atom, charset in atoms: if charset is not None: atom = atom.decode(charset) decodedvalue += atom return decodedvalue
[docs]def valid_status(status): """Return legal HTTP status Code, Reason-phrase and Message. The status arg must be an int, or a str that begins with an int. If status is an int, or a str and no reason-phrase is supplied, a default reason-phrase will be provided. """ if not status: status = 200 status = str(status) parts = status.split(' ', 1) if len(parts) == 1: # No reason supplied. code, = parts reason = None else: code, reason = parts reason = reason.strip() try: code = int(code) except ValueError: raise ValueError('Illegal response status from server ' '(%s is non-numeric).' % repr(code)) if code < 100 or code > 599: raise ValueError('Illegal response status from server ' '(%s is out of range).' % repr(code)) if code not in response_codes: # code is unknown but not illegal default_reason, message = '', '' else: default_reason, message = response_codes[code] if reason is None: reason = default_reason return code, reason, message
# NOTE: the parse_qs functions that follow are modified version of those # in the python3.0 source - we need to pass through an encoding to the unquote # method, but the default parse_qs function doesn't allow us to. These do. def _parse_qs(qs, keep_blank_values=0, strict_parsing=0, encoding='utf-8'): """Parse a query given as a string argument. Arguments: qs: URL-encoded query string to be parsed keep_blank_values: flag indicating whether blank values in URL encoded queries should be treated as blank strings. A true value indicates that blanks should be retained as blank strings. The default false value indicates that blank values are to be ignored and treated as if they were not included. strict_parsing: flag indicating what to do with parsing errors. If false (the default), errors are silently ignored. If true, errors raise a ValueError exception. Returns a dict, as G-d intended. """ pairs = [s2 for s1 in qs.split('&') for s2 in s1.split(';')] d = {} for name_value in pairs: if not name_value and not strict_parsing: continue nv = name_value.split('=', 1) if len(nv) != 2: if strict_parsing: raise ValueError('bad query field: %r' % (name_value,)) # Handle case of a control-name with no equal sign if keep_blank_values: nv.append('') else: continue if len(nv[1]) or keep_blank_values: name = unquote_qs(nv[0], encoding) value = unquote_qs(nv[1], encoding) if name in d: if not isinstance(d[name], list): d[name] = [d[name]] d[name].append(value) else: d[name] = value return d image_map_pattern = re.compile(r'[0-9]+,[0-9]+')
[docs]def parse_query_string(query_string, keep_blank_values=True, encoding='utf-8'): """Build a params dictionary from a query_string. Duplicate key/value pairs in the provided query_string will be returned as {'key': [val1, val2, ...]}. Single key/values will be returned as strings: {'key': 'value'}. """ if image_map_pattern.match(query_string): # Server-side image map. Map the coords to 'x' and 'y' # (like CGI::Request does). pm = query_string.split(',') pm = {'x': int(pm[0]), 'y': int(pm[1])} else: pm = _parse_qs(query_string, keep_blank_values, encoding=encoding) return pm
[docs]class CaseInsensitiveDict(dict): """A case-insensitive dict subclass. Each key is changed on entry to str(key).title(). """ def __getitem__(self, key): return dict.__getitem__(self, str(key).title()) def __setitem__(self, key, value): dict.__setitem__(self, str(key).title(), value) def __delitem__(self, key): dict.__delitem__(self, str(key).title()) def __contains__(self, key): return dict.__contains__(self, str(key).title())
[docs] def get(self, key, default=None): return dict.get(self, str(key).title(), default)
if hasattr({}, 'has_key'): def has_key(self, key): return str(key).title() in self
[docs] def update(self, E): for k in E.keys(): self[str(k).title()] = E[k]
[docs] def fromkeys(cls, seq, value=None): newdict = cls() for k in seq: newdict[str(k).title()] = value return newdict
[docs] def setdefault(self, key, x=None): key = str(key).title() try: return self[key] except KeyError: self[key] = x return x
[docs] def pop(self, key, default): return dict.pop(self, str(key).title(), default)
# TEXT = <any OCTET except CTLs, but including LWS> # # A CRLF is allowed in the definition of TEXT only as part of a header # field continuation. It is expected that the folding LWS will be # replaced with a single SP before interpretation of the TEXT value." if str == bytes: header_translate_table = ''.join([chr(i) for i in xrange(256)]) header_translate_deletechars = ''.join( [chr(i) for i in xrange(32)]) + chr(127) else: header_translate_table = None header_translate_deletechars = bytes(range(32)) + bytes([127])
[docs]class HeaderMap(CaseInsensitiveDict): """A dict subclass for HTTP request and response headers. Each key is changed on entry to str(key).title(). This allows headers to be case-insensitive and avoid duplicates. Values are header values (decoded according to :rfc:`2047` if necessary). """ protocol = (1, 1) encodings = ['ISO-8859-1'] # Someday, when http-bis is done, this will probably get dropped # since few servers, clients, or intermediaries do it. But until then, # we're going to obey the spec as is. # "Words of *TEXT MAY contain characters from character sets other than # ISO-8859-1 only when encoded according to the rules of RFC 2047." use_rfc_2047 = True
[docs] def elements(self, key): """Return a sorted list of HeaderElements for the given header.""" key = str(key).title() value = self.get(key) return header_elements(key, value)
[docs] def values(self, key): """Return a sorted list of HeaderElement.value for the given header.""" return [e.value for e in self.elements(key)]
[docs] def output(self): """Transform self into a list of (name, value) tuples.""" return list(self.encode_header_items(self.items()))
[docs] def encode_header_items(cls, header_items): """ Prepare the sequence of name, value tuples into a form suitable for transmitting on the wire for HTTP. """ for k, v in header_items: if isinstance(k, six.text_type): k = cls.encode(k) if not isinstance(v, text_or_bytes): v = str(v) if isinstance(v, six.text_type): v = cls.encode(v) # See header_translate_* constants above. # Replace only if you really know what you're doing. k = k.translate(header_translate_table, header_translate_deletechars) v = v.translate(header_translate_table, header_translate_deletechars) yield (k, v)
[docs] def encode(cls, v): """Return the given header name or value, encoded for HTTP output.""" for enc in cls.encodings: try: return v.encode(enc) except UnicodeEncodeError: continue if cls.protocol == (1, 1) and cls.use_rfc_2047: # Encode RFC-2047 TEXT # (e.g. u"\u8200" -> "=?utf-8?b?6IiA?="). # We do our own here instead of using the email module # because we never want to fold lines--folding has # been deprecated by the HTTP working group. v = b2a_base64(v.encode('utf-8')) return (ntob('=?utf-8?b?') + v.strip(ntob('\n')) + ntob('?=')) raise ValueError('Could not encode header part %r using ' 'any of the encodings %r.' % (v, cls.encodings))
[docs]class Host(object): """An internet address. name Should be the client's host name. If not available (because no DNS lookup is performed), the IP address should be used instead. """ ip = '' port = 80 name = 'unknown.tld' def __init__(self, ip, port, name=None): self.ip = ip self.port = port if name is None: name = ip = name def __repr__(self): return 'httputil.Host(%r, %r, %r)' % (self.ip, self.port,